Minimally invasive spinal surgery: a historical perspective
The concept of minimally invasive spinal surgery embodies the goal of achieving clinical outcomes comparable to those of conventional open surgery, while minimizing the risk of iatrogenic injury that may be incurred during the exposure process. The development of microscopy, laser technology, endoscopy, and video and image guidance systems provided the foundation on which minimally invasive spinal surgery is based. Minimally invasive treatments have been undertaken in all areas of the spinal axis since the 20th century.
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